Geosynthetic materials include a broad range of polymers and other materials which are increasingly used to provide economic solutions in a variety of civil engineering applications.
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Applications

Aquaculture

In many instances prawn or fish farmers decide to line their ponds to reduce loss of water, and to control and manage any form of disease. When implementing a liner in this environment it is imperative to make use of liners that do not contain plasticisers, as these are often toxic to thecontained fauna.

HDPE is recommended for this application, as it is free of plasticisers and has a high UV tolerance.

Channel Liners

Geomembrane liners in channels provide a cost effective barrier to reduce substantial seepage and contamination. Channel liners are also an expedient method to repair existing deteriorated concrete channels.

Floating Covers

Floating Covers consist of flexible membrane lining material applied to float on top of contained liquid to create an economical reservoir. Floating Covers are commonly used for the containment of treated potable water, odour control, dilution control and in the control of algae and evaporation. They offer an economical roof for tanks and concrete reservoirs for water storage and are one of the few techniques available to economically cover very large volumes of fluid or liquid.

Fuel and Water Storage Bladders

Pillow tanks, otherwise known as bladders and bladder tanks, are collapsible, portable tanks capable of storing a wide range of fluids including water, fuels, chemicals, oils, gases, liquids, effluents and slurries, typically manufactured making use of Reinforced Polyolefinic Membrane. Pillow and bladder tanks offer an ideal storage solution for a wide range of applications, the most popular of which is water storage. Water storage is often required on a temporary basis in many areas and applications, where it may not be efficient or economical to install permanent tanks. An ideal solution is to buy a portable water bladder.

Heap Leach Pads

Heap leach mining uses a chemical solution to dissolve metals in ore, which can then be collected by a liner and refined. Since the survivability of a lining material is often based on its flexibility, PVC lining materials are preferred for Heap leach pad liners. Covers should be used to protect the heap leach pad from infiltration of precipitation. Liners should be placed on carefully prepared subgrades on shallow 4 to 1 slopes. Heap leach mining is commonly used for gold and copper.

Landfill Sites

Landfill cells are designed and constructed as containment solutions for domestic, hazardous and industrial waste. Geomembrane liners are installed as part of engineered landfill cell constructions. The purpose of the cell lining is to contain the waste and leachate within the cell area while preventing the pollution of surrounding land and groundwater. Typically HDPE liners are used for landfill cell constructions due to their high durability properties. The HDPE liner is installed over an engineered clay or bentonite enhanced soil (BES) layer depending on the cell design. Different types of geomembrane surfaces can be provided depending on the type of application. Smooth HDPE liner is generally installed in flat areas and textured liner is installed on cell slopes to enhance friction and prevent slippages.

Landfill Leachate Ponds

Waste stabilisation ponds and holding compounds for solid materials are widely used to contain matter that is either undergoing microbiological stabilisation or needs to be contained to prevent leaching of harmful contaminants into the surrounding environment. Natural soils, such as sands and gravels, often provide poor seepage control and therefore constructed containment liners are needed to limit leakage. HDPE is the most commonly used geomembrane for this application.

Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF’s)

Disposal of mine tailings is one of the most important environmental issues for any mining project. To control the release of tailing materials, which are the waste product left over from a mineral-processing plant, a tailings dam or pond is created to contain the waste. As tailings commonly contain un-mineralised sulphides that can breakdown and release metals that can generate acidic conditions, they can represent a significant environmental hazard. To line the tailings dams or ponds, geomembranes are used to protect the environment and prevent contamination of soils and groundwater tables.

HDPE is the most commonly used geomembrane for this application due to its chemical resistance.

Tanks

Tank systems, which are Above Ground Liquid Storage Impoundments used to hold large volumes of frac water, flow-back and formation water in hydraulic fracturing operations. Flow-back and formation water coming to the surface must be captured and stored until treated and reused or transported to a disposal or facility. Liquid storage near the well head has traditionally been accomplished with in-ground impoundments or batteries of small tanks manifolded together. More recently, efficient above ground impoundments have been introduced.

Waste Water Treatment Plants

Wastewater plants treat raw wastewater in a series of steps, during which large volumes of liquids in various stages are slowed down by water tank baffles, or held, sometimes for weeks. These steps are intended to allow solids to settle, sometimes unaided, sometimes aided by treatment with bacteria while being exposed to circulating air (aeration). Geomembrane waste water liners and concrete holding tank liners are frequently installed to insure waste doesn’t seep into the ground and ultimately enter the water supply.